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Then, for each or the modules, declare its module init function as follows, replacing ... by the name of the module:

In C++, declare them as extern C .

If you are not sure of the name of the module init function, refer to your generated module source file and look for a function name starting with PyInit_ .

Next, before you start the Python runtime from your application code with Py_Initialize() , you need to initialise the modules at runtime using the PyImport_AppendInittab() C-API function, again inserting the name of each of the modules:

This enables normal imports for the embedded extension modules.

In order to prevent the joined binary from exporting all of the module init functions as public symbols, Cython 0.28 and later can hide these symbols if the macro CYTHON_NO_PYINIT_EXPORT is defined while C-compiling the module C files.

Also take a look at the cython_freeze tool.

For building Cython modules during development without explicitly running setup.py after each change, you can use pyximport :

This allows you to automatically run Cython on every .pyx that Python is trying to import. You should use this for simple Cython builds only where no extra C libraries and no special building setup is needed.

It is also possible to compile new .py modules that are being imported (including the standard library and installed packages). For using this feature, just tell that to pyximport :

In the case that Cython fails to compile a Python module, pyximport will fall back to loading the source modules instead.

Note that it is not recommended to let pyximport build code on end user side as it hooks into their import system. The best way to cater for end users is to provide pre-built binary packages in the wheel packaging format.

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The function can take several arguments to influence the compilation of Cython or Python files.

Main entry point for pyxinstall.

Call this to install the import hook in your meta-path for a single Python process. If you want it to be installed whenever you use Python, add it to your (as described above).

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Since does not use internally, it currently requires a different setup for dependencies. It is possible to declare that your module depends on multiple files, (likely and files). If your Cython module is named and thus has the filename then you should create another file in the same directory called . The file can be a list of filenames or “globs” (like or ). Each filename or glob must be on a separate line. Pyximport will check the file date for each of those files before deciding whether to rebuild the module. In order to keep track of the fact that the dependency has been handled, Pyximport updates the modification time of your “.pyx” source file. Future versions may do something more sophisticated like informing distutils of the dependencies directly.

Limitations

does not use . Thus it is not possible to do things like using compiler directives at the top of Cython files or compiling Cython code to C++.

Pyximport does not give you any control over how your Cython file is compiled. Usually the defaults are fine. You might run into problems if you wanted to write your program in half-C, half-Cython and build them into a single library.

Pyximport does not hide the Distutils/GCC warnings and errors generated by the import process. Arguably this will give you better feedback if something went wrong and why. And if nothing went wrong it will give you the warm fuzzy feeling that pyximport really did rebuild your module as it was supposed to.

Basic module reloading support is available with the option . Note that this will generate a new module filename for each build and thus end up loading multiple shared libraries into memory over time. CPython has limited support for reloading shared libraries as such, see PEP 489 .

Pyximport puts both your file and the platform-specific binary into a separate build directory, usually . To copy it back into the package hierarchy (usually next to the source file) for manual reuse, you can pass the option .

One can also compile Cython in a fashion similar to SciPy’s weave.inline . For example:

Collections Management

American Museum of Natural History · PaleoPortal Collections Management

Even if the specimen itself is later lost or destroyed, the catalog entry remains as a permanent record of the original specimen. The importance of creating this record, by the physical process of data entry and labeling, cannot be understated. For natural history collections, a large fraction of the scientific value of the specimen is tied to its associated data. The catalog number is the link between the specimen and the data; if this link is broken, then the specimen may lose much of its usefulness for research and education.

A unique identifier ensures a permanent record of the original specimen.

Some people use the words “cataloging” and “accessioning” interchangeably, but, as we discussed in the section on accessioning , the act of cataloging and accessioning may or may not be the same thing. An accession record contains issues that are most relevant to ownership of the specimen; for example, how and when it was acquired, whereas catalog records allow you to assess what you have, what condition it is in, and where it is. The catalog is the intellectual link to your collection and the key to the physical specimens. The bigger a collection is, the more important this organizational link becomes.

Catalog numbers are of vital importance when specimens are used for research. Specimens are always referred to by their catalog number in scientific publications. This enables other researchers to reference the specimen in their publications, or to confirm or reject the observations of other scientists by directly examining the specimen themselves. Citing the catalog number makes sure that everyone is looking at the same specimen and the same set of associated information.

What is a catalog number?

You mark the catalog number on the object, and create a catalog record for each number. The number links the object and the documentation. This number may be different from an accession number that identifies the transaction that establishes ownership of the object or group of objects.

Chapter 3: Cataloging of the National Park Service’s Museum Handbook, Part II: Museum Records is available online .

It may not be possible to catalog newly excavated fossils until enough preparation work has been done to identify the specimen. It is important that the person who does the cataloging knows enough about the specimen, its origin, and the collection generally to make accurate identifications, detailed observations, provide cross-references to related objects, and place the specimen within the context of the larger collection. Whether you are cataloging onto a paper worksheet, a catalog card, a ledger, or a computer database, you should always follow the same format to ensure consistency. In a computerized database each piece of information is entered into a separate field , which is the specified area used for this particular type of data (see Databasing ).

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https://knowledge.insead.edu/blog/insead-blog/the-shape-of-hierarchy-and-why-it-matters-7351 October 6, 2017
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Comments
KV ,
Interesting set of questions

Interesting set of questions certainly, though the insights from the survey are certainly not new to anyone involved in this area. @Phanish, I would be interested in your thoughts on the Elliott Jacques ideas and work on structures and hierarchy, many of which I have used and have come to believe in. there are answers to some of these questions there I think.

BobTeun ,
Hierarchy and why it matters

It is interesting to see the results of the survey. Figure 1 certainly points to the fact that there are far too many layers in the consulted organisations. However, I do not share the conclusion about delayering. It overlooks the need to clarify what a layer is, why we need layers in organisations in the first place, and how they relate to each other. Above all, it is important to understand why they matter for strategy execution. I should like to refer to Elliott Jaques’s articles “In praise of hierarchy” and “Too many management levels.”

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Phanish Puranam

Phanish Puranam is the Roland Berger Chair Professor of Strategy Organisation Design, an Academic Director of the PhD...

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